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Astrophysicists describe the history of mathematical cosmology

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Astrophysicists from RUDN University have collected the most important discoveries of modern cosmology from 1917 to our time. The collected data became an introduction to Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A in two parts: from 1917 to 1980 and from 1980 to our time.

Cosmology, the science of properties and evolution of the universeoriginated in old times as religious myths about the creation of the world. Over the last hundred years, cosmology has become one of the most dynamically developing fields of science, albeit one of the most complex. One of the last songs of the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A is devoted to the present and future of mathematical cosmology.

RUDN professors Spiros Cotsakis and Alexander Yefremov are the editors of the issue. In the introduction, astrophysicists analyzed the entire history of the development of modern theoretical cosmology. The news Philosophical Transactions is one of the oldest journals in the world and has been published continuously since 1665, including articles by Newton, Leibniz, Huygens and Boyle.

“The beauty and great diversity of the ideas of modern mathematical cosmology are rooted in different kinds of geometry that must be developed and studied in parallel and in conjunction with these cosmological ideas. This is necessary to explore different aspects of this most majestic of the realms of the theoretical physics,” said Alexander Yefremov, doctor of sciences in physics and mathematics, professor at the Educational and Scientific Institute of Gravitation and Cosmology at RUDN University.

The authors divided the history of the development of cosmology into four stages. The first and the longest cover the period from 1917 to 1960. The next three periods last 20 years. The year 1917, specifically the date February 8, 1917, is known for the birth of modern cosmology at RUDN astrophysics, when Einstein demonstrated the first application of general relativity to the universe. He created the first modern cosmological model in which matter is immobile and has a finite volume, but knows no boundaries. The static nature of the universe according to Einstein is achieved through the cosmological constant. Other cosmological models soon appeared.

A real breakthrough in modern cosmology was made by the Russian mathematician Alexander Fridman. In 1922 he found a solution to Einstein’s equations describing a dynamically expanding universe; this theory was experimentally (and sensationally) confirmed by the British astronomer Edwin Hubble, who in 1929 discovered the so-called redshift of galaxies, meaning that they are moving away from each other.

Later, on the basis of this information, Georgy Gamov (USA) formulated the theory of the hot universe (at an early stage of its existence), and a little later (1949) the process of the birth of such a model of the universe became known like the big bang. The term is believed to have been coined by British astronomer Fred Hoyle.

In the late 1970s, discoveries in particle physics led to grand unification models that had an immediate impact on cosmology. Later, the inflationary model of the universe, the theory of the multiverse, and other important theoretical discoveries emerged. Since 1998 it has been the main focus of cosmologists dark energythe main component of the universe.

“Theoretical mathematical cosmology is not a subject that can be easily understood. To overcome the difficulty of acquiring the necessary knowledge, you need a clear compass that shows what research problems and directions are available, important or feasible. We have some important keywords described developments in the field of modern theory cosmology since its inception in 1917. We have identified and discussed some of the important ideas that characterize the nature of this field within the framework of theoretical physics,” said Spiros Cotsakis, a professor at the Educational and Scientific Institute of Gravitation and Cosmology of the RUDN University

More information:
Spiros Cotsakis et al, 100 Years of Mathematical Cosmology: Models, Theories, and Problems, Part A, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences (2022). DOI: 10.1098/rsta.2021.0191

Spiros Cotsakis et al, 100 Years of Mathematical Cosmology: Models, Theories, and Problems, Part B, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences (2022). DOI: 10.1098/rsta.2021.0171

Offered by the Russian Foundation for Fundamental Research

Quote: Astrophysicists describe the history of mathematical cosmology (2022, Nov. 21) Retrieved Nov. 21, 2022 from https://phys.org/news/2022-11-astrophysicists-chronicle-history-mathematical-cosmology.html

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